Short Cricuit | Causes And types - LBM4

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Wednesday 25 September 2019

Short Cricuit | Causes And types

Short Circuit

A short circuit is an electrical circuit that allows a current to travel along an unintended path with no or very low electrical impedance.

Short Circuit

A common type of short circuit occurs when the positive and negative terminals of a battery are connected with a low-resistance conductor, like a wire. With a low resistance in the connection, a high current will flow, causing the delivery of a large amount of energy in a short period of time.

Main Causes

There are several causes for short circuits, including three that are most often to blame.

Faulty Circuit Wire Insulation

Old or damaged insulation may allow neutral and hot wires to touch, which can cause a short circuit. Nail and screw punctures, as well as age, can cause wire casings or insulation to deteriorate and create short circuits. Or, if animal pests such as mice, rats, or squirrels gnaw on circuit wiring, the inner wire conductors can be exposed to cause short circuits.

Loose Wire Connections

Attachments can loosen, sometimes allowing neutral and live wires to touch. Fixing faulty wire connections is tricky and is best handled by those thoroughly familiar with wiring work.
short circuit due to loose wire

Faulty Appliance Wiring

When an appliance is plugged into a wall outlet, its wiring effectively becomes an extension of the circuit, and any problems in the appliance wiring become circuit problems. Old or broken appliances can develop inner short circuits over time. Short circuits in appliances can occur in the plugs, in the power cords, or inside the device itself. It’s best to have a technician look at shorts in larger appliances such as ovens and dishwashers. Smaller appliances such as lamps often can be rewired yourself.

Types of Short Circuit

In general terms, a short circuit is any condition where the establish wiring circuit is interrupted by a flaw in the wiring or wiring connections. Actually, though, there are two situations that both qualify as short circuits, although they carry different names.

Short Circuit

The term short circuit is most commonly used by electricians to refer to the situation in which a hot wire carrying live current touches a neutral wire. When this happens, resistance lessens instantly and a large volume of current flows through an unexpected pathway. When this classic short circuit occurs, sparks sometimes fly, you may hear crackling, and sometimes smoke and flames ensue.

Ground Fault

A ground fault is a type of short circuit that occurs when the hot wire carrying current comes into contact with some grounded portion of the system, such as a bare copper ground wire, a grounded metal wall box, or a grounded portion of an appliance. As with the classic short circuit, a ground-fault causes resistance to instantly lessen, which allows a large amount of unimpeded current to flow through the unexpected pathway. Here, there is less chance of flame and fire, but a notable chance of shock.
ground fault condition

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