Wonderful Obstacle Avoiding Robot Step By Step - LBM4

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Monday 29 July 2019

Wonderful Obstacle Avoiding Robot Step By Step

Obstacle Avoiding Robot

The concept of Mobile Robot is fast evolving and the number of mobile robots and their complexities are increasing with different applications.There are many types of mobile robot navigation techniques like path planning, self – localization and map interpreting. An Obstacle Avoiding Robot is a type of autonomous mobile robot that avoids collision with unexpected obstacles.

In this project, an Obstacle Avoiding Robot is designed. It is an Arduino based robot that uses Ultrasonic range finder sensors to avoid collisions.

obstacle avoiding car

Components Required

  1. Arduino Uno 
  2.  Ultrasonic Range Finder Sensor – HC – SR04 
  3.  Motor Driver IC – L293D  
  4. Servo Motor (Tower Pro SG90) 
  5. Geared Motors x 2 
  6. Robot Chassis 
  7. Power Supply 
  8. Battery Connector
  9. Battery Holder

   Circuit Diagram:

overal circuit diagram

Components Description


Arduino Uno is an ATmega 328p Microcontroller based prototyping board. It is an open source electronic prototyping platform that can be used with various sensors and actuators.


It is an Ultrasonic Range Finder Sensor. It is a non-contact based distance measurement system and can measure distance of 2cm to 4m.

Servo Motor

The Tower Pro SG90 is a simple Servo Motor which can rotate 90 degrees in each direction (approximately 180 degrees in total)

Step 1: Chassis 

chassis board

The first step and the base of any robot is a chassis. Either way, the chassis has to include a body, two motors and sometimes even a battery holder and a switch.

Step2:Attaching Arduino

attaching with arduino
Now simply use some screws to attach the Arduino to the chassis. If you've made your own chassis/ can't find any screws, you can use a small amount of double-sided tape. If you do choose to use double-sided tape then search for an area under the Arduino that doesn't have many pins/solder above it.


Step3:Attaching Sensor

attaching sensor
All we have to do next is to actually attach the sensor to the body. To make life easier, it is recommend sticking a mini bread-board as well for easier wiring, although you don't have to.


Step 4: Connecting Sensor to Arduino

connecting sensor with arduino
whole setup diagram           

Now gather some wires, and connect the sensor to the Arduino according to this diagram is made. Pay attention that your ping sensor may have a different pin layout (e.g. 5 pins), but it should have a voltage pin, ground pin, trig pin and an echo pin.

Step 5: Connecting motor to Arduino

connecting motor to arduino
Arduino boards can't control dc motors by their own, because the currents they are generating are too low. Moreover, the currents they are generating cannot be reversed, so you can't change the direction of the motor. To solve that we will use a motor driver, which helps the Arduino control dc motors. The most comfortable way of using motor drivers is through shields.

Finally upload the Arduino Program and Obstacle avoiding robot is completely ready.

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